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Power Electronics And High Voltage In Smart Gri...



Integrating renewable and distributed energy resources, such as photovoltaics (PV) and energy storage devices, into the electric distribution system requires advanced power electronics, or smart inverters, that can provide grid services such as voltage and frequency regulation, ride-through, dynamic current injection, and anti-islanding functionality. To enable this integration, NREL is designing novel wide-bandgap smart inverters, developing robust control algorithms for better inverter functionality, determining interactions between multiple smart inverters and between inverters and utility distribution systems, supporting standards development for smart inverter functionalities, and analyzing the impacts of smart inverters on distribution systems.




Power Electronics and High Voltage in Smart Gri...


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To enable the integration of hundreds of gigawatts of solar generation into the U.S. electric power system, NREL is designing a PV inverter that combines high-voltage silicon carbide with revolutionary concepts such as additive manufacturing and multi-objective magnetic design optimization to achieve better performance and reliability at lower cost. This project includes a high-voltage silicon carbide-based power block, advanced gate driver, flexible controller board, advanced grid-support control algorithms, communications interface for interoperability, multi-objective magnetic design tools, high-power-density inverter design, prototyping, and grid integration testing of the new inverter.


Advanced Energy Industries validated its advanced PV inverter technology using NREL's power hardware-in-the-loop system and megawatt-scale grid simulators. Our utility-scale power hardware-in-the-loop capability allowed Advanced Energy to loop its inverter into a real-world simulation environment so researchers could see the impact of the inverter's advanced features on power reliability and quality. Advanced Energy's inverter will help support a smarter grid that can handle two-way flow of power and communication while reducing hardware costs.


Florida Power and Light partnered with NREL to provide performance evaluations of several of the inverter types installed at this site. In the Energy Systems Integration Facility, NREL researchers are able to test the inverters under a range of operating conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. Nine types of tests were run in this study: voltage ride-through, frequency ride-through, fixed power factor operation, frequency-watt control, volt/VAR control, efficiency, anti-islanding, load rejection overvoltage, and single- and three-phase faults.


Reaching Department of Energy goals of 20% wind energy by 2030 and 35% by 2050 requires a better understanding of power system reliability at high levels of wind energy penetration. These important questions need to be addressed to enable high-penetration scenarios:


NREL is collaborating with SolarCity to address the safety, reliability, and stability challenges of interconnecting high penetrations of distributed PV with the electric power system. This work includes collaborating with the Hawaiian Electric Companies to analyze high-penetration solar scenarios using advanced modeling and inverter testing.


The book contains select proceedings of the International Conference on Smart Grid Energy Systems and Control (SGESC 2021). The proceedings is divided into 03 volumes, and this volume focuses on power electronics, machines, systems integrations, and high voltage engineering. This book is a unique collection of chapters from different areas with a common theme and will be immensely useful to academic researchers and practitioners in the industry.


Dr. Atma Ram Gupta received his B. Tech. in Electrical Engineering from C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneshwar, M. Tech. in Electrical Engineering from National Institute of Technology (NIT), Durgapur, and Ph.D. in Power Systems from NIT Kurukshetra. He is a senior member of IEEE and IEEE Power & Energy Society. He is an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at NIT Kurukshetra. Dr. Gupta's research interests are renewable energy-based D.G. and D-FACTS allocation in the distribution system and high voltage engineering. He has 50 research publications in various reputed international journals, book chapters, and conferences.


Dr. N.K. Roy is a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India. He obtained his M.E. (Elect.) from the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, and a Ph.D. (Elect.) from the University of South Australia, Australia. He has 80 publications in journals and conferences of international repute. His research interests include high voltage engineering, magnetic fields in power lines, ICT & IoT enabled high voltage laboratories and lab facilities, rural e-Governance, power quality & energy audit, digital e-Learning, and renewable energy.


Reliability and efficiency of energy conversion in power electronics converters by high voltage power semiconductor devices in renewables-enabled smart grids, electric vehicles, automotive & aviation to tackle global warming.


Dr Saeed Jahdi has received the degree of BSc in Electrical Power Engineering from the University of Science and Technology, the degree of MSc with Distinction in Power Systems from City University London, and the degree of PhD in Power Electronics from the University of Warwick. Following his PhD, he joined the HVDC Center of Excellence of GE Grid Solutions in Stafford, UK as a power electronics engineer working on GE's first modular multi-level (MMC) voltage-sourced converter (VSC) in HVDC systems. During his time in General Electric, he was active in different aspects of design and commissioning of various VSC-HVDC converters, including power electronics simulations, conducting operational and protection type-tests, project documentation and onshore and offshore site installation in the UK, Sweden, Germany, France & Italy to transmit renewable energy sources such as offshore wind farms in North Sea to European grids. After almost four years of gaining industrial experience in GE, Dr Jahdi was appointed as a lecturer in power electronics in Electrical Energy Management Group of University of Bristol. His current research interest is on investigation of reliability and efficiency optimization of energy conversion in high voltage power electronics converter topologies which could best employ the advantages offered by recently emerged wide-bandgap power semiconductor devices, i.e. SiC & GaN devices. Applications include renewables-enabled HVDC and FACTS in smart grids, electric vehicle drive-trains, and more-electric-aircrafts to address global warming and climate change. Dr Jahdi is a Fellow of Higher Education Academy (FHEA) and is recognized by the IET as a Chartered Engineer in the UK.


My current research interests are investigating the reliability and efficiency optimization of energy conversion in high voltage power electronics converters used in applications such as HVDC and FACTS power electronics in smart grids, electric vehicles drive-trains and more-electric-aircrafts power distribution to address global warming and climate change. To this end, and in-line with my academic and industrial experience, I am currently seeking to explore prospective converter topologies which can best employ the advantages offered by recently emerged wide bandgap power semiconductor devices.


Abstract:At present, the energy transition is leading to the replacement of large thermal power plants by distributed renewable generation and the introduction of different assets. Consequently, a massive deployment of power electronics is expected. A particular case will be the devices destined for urban environments and smart grids. Indeed, such applications have some features that make wide bandgap (WBG) materials particularly relevant. This paper analyzes the most important features expected by future smart applications from which the characteristics that their power semiconductors must perform can be deduced. Following, not only the characteristics and theoretical limits of wide bandgap materials already available on the market (SiC and GaN) have been analyzed, but also those currently being researched as promising future alternatives (Ga2O3, AlN, etc.). Finally, wide bandgap materials are compared under the needs determined by the smart applications, determining the best suited to them. We conclude that, although SiC and GaN are currently the only WBG materials available on the semiconductor portfolio, they may be displaced by others such as Ga2O3 in the near future.Keywords: wide bandgap materials; power electronics; smart grids; distributed energy resources; technical requirements


This paper reviews the basics of power electronics that include power semiconductor devices and applications of power electronics in energy savings, electric vehicles, renewable energy systems, and grid energy storage. Basic elements of smart grid are also outlined.


This paper reviews different types of high-voltage and medium-voltage multilevel high power converters which are used in smart grid and renewable energy systems that include variable frequency motor drives.


The voltage stress on the medium-frequency transformer insulation (and other inverter-fed medium-voltage loads in general) thus consists of a succession of voltage pulses (up to 100 thousand per second) of several kilovolts in amplitude. The transitions between voltage levels (two in the simplest case) occurs with speeds up to several tens of kilovolts per microsecond. Moreover, the high conversion power density and the unavoidable conversion losses lead to high insulation temperatures (>100C) even in high-efficiency transformer designs


entails the conversion of energy from solar, heat, vibration and electromagnetic sources into electricity. At Binghamton University, research in materials for solar and thermoelectric devices involves engineering, materials sciences and chemistry faculty and students, many of whom collaborate through the Center for Autonomous Solar Power (CASP) part of the New York State Center of Excellence in Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging (S3IP). Energy harvesting, sometimes called energy scavenging, involves capture of energy for mobile and wireless sensor node applications that require smaller amounts of power. Energy can be captured from vibrations of structures, stray light and stray electromagnetic energy. Binghamton faculty engaged in energy harvesting devices and applications are in engineering, computer science and chemistry.The focus of research at Binghamton in energy generation is on unique and (usually) nanostructured materials that can be easily incorporated into devices and circuits to convert solar and thermal energy into electricity efficiently. Some materials are useful for applications in other fields, such as transparent conductors and antireflection coatings. The facilities within CASP, the Analytical and Diagnostics Laboratory (ADL), the Center for Advanced Microelectronics Manufacturing (CAMM) and the Nanofabrication Laboratory are extensive, and collaborations with industry and other academic programs are growing.Energy harvesting involves powers ranging from microwatts to tens of watts for a wide variety of systems. Specific research programs at Binghamton include capture of mechanical vibrations with broader band MEMs devices (mechanical engineering), bio-solar cells that can produce electricity day or night (electrical and computer engineering) and micropower sensor applications (computer science). 041b061a72


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